What is Debian? One of the Oldest Linux Distributions

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Last updated: July 11, 2024

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  1. Debian: A popular, free Linux-based operating system.
  2. Key Features: Stability, security, and flexibility.
  3. Benefits: Reliable, extensive software repository, highly customizable, strong community support.
  4. Drawbacks: Slower release cycle, complex installation, limited hardware compatibility, steeper learning curve.

Are you feeling overwhelmed by all the operating system options out there? Don’t worry, I’ve got you covered. Debian, a popular and free Linux-based system, might be just what you need. In this post, I’ll guide you through what is Debian, it’s key features, benefits, and history, and compare it to other distributions.

You’ll discover why Debian stands out for its stability, security, and flexibility, and learn about some of its drawbacks. Whether you’re a beginner, a developer, or a system administrator, I’ll show you how Debian could be the perfect fit for your needs. Let’s explore together!

Debian interface

What is Debian?

Debian is a popular and free operating system that uses the Linux kernel. An operating system is the software that allows you to run other programs on your computer. Debian includes a collection of software tools and applications, making it a complete package for both personal and professional use.

Here are some key points about Debian:

  • Free and Open-Source: You can use, modify, and share Debian without paying for it.
  • Stable and Reliable: Debian is known for its stability and reliability. The developers thoroughly test the software before releasing it.
  • Large Software Repository: Debian offers thousands of software packages that you can easily install and use.
  • Customizable: You can choose from various desktop environments like GNOME, KDE, and XFCE to personalize your user experience.

Learn how to install GNOME on Debian by reading this detailed guide.

History of Debian

Debian started in 1993 when Ian Murdock created it with the aim of building a free and open-source operating system. He named Debian after his then-girlfriend, Debra, and himself, combining “Deb” from Debra and “ian” from Ian.

Evolution Over the Years

1993 Debian founded by Ian MurdockInitiated the development of a new Linux OS
1996Debian 1.1 Buzz releasedFirst stable release, set the foundation
2000Debian 2.2 Potato releasedImproved package management and security
2005Debian 3.1 Sarge releasedIntroduced the installer, better hardware support
2013Debian 7 Wheezy releasedMulti-arch support, better multimedia handling
2017Debian 9 Stretch releasedEnhanced security features, new applications
2021Debian 11 Bullseye releasedModernized software, improved performance

What Are Debian’s Key Features and Benefits?

Debian is a widely trusted Linux distribution known for its stability, security, and flexibility. Let’s explore its key features and benefits to understand why it stands out in the Linux ecosystem.

1. Stability and Reliability

Debian is known for its exceptional stability and reliability, making it a trusted choice for both personal and professional use.

Long Release Cycles

  • Debian releases new versions at a slower pace.
  • These long release cycles ensure that the software is thoroughly tested and stable before it reaches users.

Extensive Testing Process

  • Developers rigorously test new versions before release.
  • They fix bugs and ensure all components work seamlessly together, leading to a more reliable system.

2. Security Features

Debian prioritizes security, offering robust measures to keep your system safe.

Regular Security Updates

  • Debian provides frequent security updates.
  • These updates quickly address any vulnerabilities found, maintaining the security of your system.

Debian Security Team

  • A dedicated team focuses on Debian’s security.
  • This team monitors for potential threats and delivers timely fixes, ensuring a secure operating system.

3. Package Management System

Debian’s package management system simplifies software installation and maintenance.

APT (Advanced Package Tool)

  • APT is a powerful tool for managing software.
  • It helps you easily install, update, and remove software packages on your system.

DEB Packages

  • Debian uses DEB packages for software distribution.
  • This package format ensures all necessary files and dependencies are included, making software management straightforward.

4. Flexibility and Customizability

Debian offers great flexibility, allowing you to tailor the system to your needs.

Variety of Desktop Environments

  • Debian supports many desktop environments such as GNOME, KDE, and XFCE.
  • You can choose the one that best suits your preferences and workflow.
debian gnome environment

Extensive Repository of Software Packages

  • Debian provides access to a vast repository of software packages.
  • You can find almost any software you need, making it easy to customize your system for any task.

What Are the Drawbacks of Using Debian?

While Debian has many advantages, it also has some drawbacks that users should consider. Here are some of the main challenges you might face when using Debian.

  • Slower Release Cycle Debian releases new versions less frequently than other distributions. This means you might not get the latest software updates and features as quickly.
  • Complex Installation The installation process can be more complicated compared to other Linux distributions like Ubuntu. Beginners might find it challenging to set up and configure Debian.
  • Hardware Compatibility Debian might not support the latest hardware out-of-the-box. You may need to install additional drivers or perform manual configurations to get your hardware working properly.
  • Limited Proprietary Software Debian focuses on free and open-source software, so it includes limited proprietary software. You might need to manually install certain proprietary drivers or applications, which can be inconvenient.
  • Steeper Learning Curve Debian can have a steeper learning curve, especially for new users. Advanced customization and system management might require more technical knowledge and experience.

Debian for Different Users

Debian is versatile and suits different types of users, from beginners to developers and system administrators. Each group can benefit from Debian’s unique features tailored to their needs. Here’s how Debian serves each of these user groups.

🧑‍🎓 Debian for Beginners

Debian is a good choice for beginners who want to learn Linux.


  • Ease of Use: Once set up, Debian is easy to navigate and use.
  • Desktop Environments: Beginners can choose from GNOME, KDE, XFCE, and others to find the one they like best.
  • Support: A large community and plenty of documentation are available to help new users.
debian 1 1

👨‍💻 Debian for Developers

Developers find Debian useful because it provides a solid and customizable environment.


  • Development Tools: Debian has a vast repository of development tools and libraries.
  • Package Manager: APT allows easy installation of compilers, editors, version control systems, and other essential tools.
  • Stability: Debian’s stability ensures a consistent development environment, which is crucial for coding and testing software.

🛠️ Debian for System Administrators

System administrators prefer Debian for its stability and security.


  • Robust Performance: Debian is ideal for managing servers and supports various server applications.
  • Server Setup: Admins can efficiently set up web servers, mail servers, and database servers.
  • Regular Updates: Debian provides regular security updates and strong community support, helping to maintain secure and reliable systems.
  • Long Release Cycles: Fewer disruptive updates allow admins to focus on maintenance and performance optimization.

Debian vs. Other Distributions

Choosing the right Linux distribution can be challenging given the various options available. Here’s a comparison of Debian, Ubuntu, Fedora, and CentOS to help you understand their key aspects and decide which one suits your needs best.

Aspect DebianUbuntuFedoraCentOS
FoundationIndependentBased on DebianSponsored by Red HatBased on RHEL
Release CycleLong, stable releasesRegular, semi-annual releasesFrequent, cutting-edge releasesLong-term support releases
StabilityHighly stableStable, but with more frequent updatesLess stable, cutting-edge featuresHighly stable
Target UsersGeneral-purposeGeneral-purposeDevelopers, tech enthusiastsEnterprise environments
Package ManagementAPT, DEB packagesAPT, DEB packagesDNF, RPM packagesYUM, RPM packages
Desktop EnvironmentsGNOME, KDE, XFCE, many moreGNOME, KDE, othersGNOME, KDE, othersGNOME, KDE, others
Community SupportLarge community, volunteer-drivenLarge community, Canonical supportLarge community, Red Hat influenceLarge community, Red Hat support
Security UpdatesRegular, prompt updatesRegular, prompt updatesFrequent updatesRegular updates, enterprise-grade
Enterprise SupportLimited, community-basedAvailable through CanonicalAvailable through Red HatExtensive, enterprise-level support
CustomizationHighly customizableCustomizable, but opinionated defaultsCustomizable, developer-focusedCustomizable, enterprise-focused

Which to Choose?

Choosing the right Linux distribution depends on your needs and preferences. Here’s a quick guide to help you decide between Debian, Ubuntu, Fedora, and CentOS.

  • Choose Debian for maximum stability and flexibility. It is ideal for experienced users and servers.
  • Choose Ubuntu for user-friendliness and regular updates. It is great for desktops and beginners.
  • Choose Fedora for the latest features and development purposes. It is suitable for developers.
  • Choose CentOS for stability and enterprise support. It is best for business environments.
different linux systems

Final Thoughts

In this article, I’ve shared insights about Debian, a free Linux-based operating system known for its stability, security, and flexibility. We covered its history, major milestones, key features, and benefits, including its extensive software repository and strong community support.

If you found this article helpful, you might also enjoy:

  • Exploring how to install Debian on VirtualBox to safely explore it without affecting your main system.
  • Learning how to keep Debian up to date, which is crucial for security and performance.
  • Discovering the steps to add and delete users, essential for effective system management.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. How often are Debian releases updated?

    Debian releases are updated approximately every two years. The stable releases, which are thoroughly tested, receive regular security updates and minor bug fixes. The Testing and Unstable branches receive more frequent updates, with the Unstable branch getting the latest software and the Testing branch serving as a staging area for the next stable release.

  2. What are the differences between Debian’s Stable, Testing, and Unstable branches?

    Debian’s Stable branch offers maximum stability and receives only security updates and critical bug fixes. The Testing branch includes newer software and features that will become part of the next stable release. The Unstable branch, known as Sid, contains the latest software but may have more bugs and stability issues compared to the other branches.

  3. Can Debian run on older hardware?

    Yes, Debian can run on older hardware. Its lightweight desktop environments like XFCE and LXDE are particularly well-suited for less powerful systems. Debian’s flexibility allows users to tailor the installation to their hardware capabilities, ensuring a smooth experience even on older machines by opting for fewer resource-intensive applications and services.

  4. How do I contribute to the Debian project?

    To contribute to the Debian project, you can start by joining the Debian community, participating in mailing lists, and reading the official documentation. You can contribute by reporting bugs, creating and maintaining packages, or joining development and documentation teams. Additionally, you can support Debian financially or help spread awareness about the project.



Ojash is a skilled Linux expert and tech writer with over a decade of experience. He has extensive knowledge of Linux's file system, command-line interface, and software installations. Ojash is also an expert in shell scripting and automation, with experience in Bash, Python, and Perl. He has published numerous articles on Linux in various online publications, making him a valuable resource for both seasoned Linux users and beginners. Ojash is also an active member of the Linux community and participates in Linux forums.



Akshat is a software engineer, product designer and the co-founder of Scrutify. He's an experienced Linux professional and the senior editor of this blog. He is also an open-source contributor to many projects on Github and has written several technical guides on Linux. Apart from that, he’s also actively sharing his ideas and tutorials on Medium and Attirer. As the editor of this blog, Akshat brings his wealth of knowledge and experience to provide readers with valuable insights and advice on a wide range of Linux-related topics.

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